Oldest Mechanical Clock Panerai Perpetual Italian Time

The restoration of the mechanical device of the main bell of Florence’s main church was officially completed, and it was unveiled in Florence again today. The bell was also named ‘Paul Ucello Bell’ in honor of the magnificent clock face painted by the great Renaissance painter in 1433. The bell is located above the main entrance of the church and is concealed. It is one of the very few bells in the world that displays ‘Italic Hours’.

The bell of the Florence Cathedral is one of the oldest mechanical clocks in existence. The design of the clock face is very different. It was hand-painted by one of the great painters of the Renaissance, Paolo Uccello.

The Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore (Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore) and Panerai agreed to commission the restoration of the clock to two of the world’s great watch experts: Professor Andrea Palmieri and ISIS Leonardo da Vinci Professor Ugo Pancani. With the support and contribution of Panerai PANERAI, the restoration work of Dazhong was completed smoothly, and its mechanical equipment was operated smoothly again. Panerai is a high-end sports watch brand. Founded in Florence in 1860, its historic boutique faces the Baptistery and is only a few feet away from the main church in the Archbishop’s Palace.

‘Italian Time’ is a timekeeping system that measures the time of sunset from today to tomorrow. The zero hour is not midnight, but the sunset time.

The bell of Florence Cathedral is unique in the world. It not only has a prominent position and the painted patterns on its clock face are from famous artists. It is also famous for its ‘Italian time’ time system. The method of measuring at this time is the ‘Julian time’ of ancient times (Julius Caesar, the emperor of Caesar, launched the Julian calendar created by Sosigenes of Alexandria in 46 BC). ‘Italian time’ is also called ‘Ave Maria’. Its clock face design and time display are very different from those of modern times. Only one hand rotates counterclockwise. The 24th hour is not midnight, but sunset time. Start with the sunset. Therefore, the clock must be adjusted throughout the year so that the last hour of each day is synchronized with the sunset time.

Prof. Andrea Palmieri and Prof. Ugo Pancani restructured the clock mechanism, and then fine-tuned, balanced and adjusted the frequency. The restoration project was officially completed here.

According to Giorgio Vasari (‘Ucello painted the clock face with the time scale on the wall of the main entrance of the church, the head of the big clock is painted on the four corners’), the clock face was drawn by the Florence painter Ucello (Formerly Paolo di Dono, 1397-1475). The clock face is nearly seven meters in diameter, and the 24-hour Roman time scale is arranged counterclockwise. The four corners of the clock are painted with the heads of four mysterious men. They are covered with haloes and overlook the central position. Some consider the four to be prophets, while others consider them the authors of the Four Gospels.

The restoration project starts with the complete disassembly of each component, followed by targeted cleaning to remove accumulated harmful substances

The original mechanism of the bell was designed and manufactured by Florence clockmaker Angelo di Niccolò in 1443, but no literature has been written on the principle of the mechanism of the bell. The bell should be equipped with a hammer and counterweight system. Some similar parts were found in the church. Decades after the bell was completed, the machinery needed repairs. The project was first handed over by Della Volpaia clocks and scientific families. The first generation of repair work was completed by Lorenzo Della Volpaia in 1497. The famous ‘Planetary Clock’ is his masterpiece. The second-generation repair work was also completed by his son Camillo from 1546 to 1547, and the bell was almost rebuilt. After that, the bell was repaired several times. Until 1688, the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Flowers was inspired by the institute of Galileo and Huygens and decided to change the mechanism of the bell to a pendulum system. The system operated until 1761, and was replaced by a new mechanical device designed by Florence clockmaker Giuseppe Borgiacchi, which has been operating ever since. Later, Ucello’s original 24-hour clock face was also changed to 12 hours, and the original hands were replaced. To 40 Years ago, the big clock was restored to the original magnificent clock face design and the old mechanical device, and finally returned to its original appearance. It was displayed again in 24 hours, the hour hand turned counterclockwise, and the day began with sunset.

The mechanism of the bell hangs high above the main entrance of the interior of Florence Cathedral, and the clock face painting showing time is from Paul. Hand of Ucello

In recent years, church bells have undergone further renovations to remove problems that affect the operation of the bells, including harmful substances (iron oxide scale and dust) on the drive shaft, shaft holes, escapement and pinions, and Deformation, aging, severe wear, etc. The first step of the restoration project is to disassemble the bell, to preliminary clean up the harmful substances inside the device, then to thoroughly repair the various parts, and finally reassemble the mechanical device and adjust it. For more than 20 years, the bells of the Florence Cathedral were calibrated by Lucio Bigi and Mario Mureddu, two guardians sent by the Basilica of Santa Maria del Fiore every week. They wrote more books, becoming the only classics in history. For the past few centuries, the task of adjusting the bell has been the responsibility of inside the cathedral. In Florence, Giotto uses the ‘Occasion of Our Lady’ as the city’s six times a day, three times in the morning (7, 11:30 and 12 noon), three times in the afternoon. The hourly time in the afternoon is adjusted according to the sunset time, which is one hour before sunset, sunset (or the 24th hour, believers will sing ‘Ode to Our Lady’ or evening prayer at this time), and one hour after sunset, that is, ‘evening time ‘. For example, Bigi and Mureddu wrote in the book: ‘The bell rings at the 24th hour, the purpose is to remind the farmers working in the fields that the city gates are about to close, please go home as soon as possible. The bell at 11.30am is called-grace time The purpose is to inform the church brothers that it is time to give a helping hand to help those in need in the city. ‘

It has been more than 150 years since Panerai opened its first watch store in Florence. Panerai continues to support the local historical and artistic heritage and has refurbished its store in Piazza San Giovanni. Store is the most important store of the brand